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What follows is a summary of the story concerning the events that occurred at the time of Musa عليه السلام; the victory Allah provided to His messenger and the destruction of the Pharoah. It is summarised from a khutba delivered by Shaikh Mohammad bin Salih al-Uthaymeen.

“In this month of Muharram was the salvation of Musa عليه السلام and his people from Pharoah and his army. Allah سبحانه و تعالى had sent him with clear evidences and proofs upon his prophethood, yet the Pharoah was arrogant and haughty and claimed, “I am your lord, most high” [An-Naazi’aat:24]. Musa عليه السلام came to him with great signs and called him to tawhid, to the tawhid of the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth yet Pharoah said in arrogance, “And what is the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists)?”[Ash-Shu’ara:23]. 

Musa عليه السلام responded, Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, if you seek to be convinced with certainty.”[Ash-Shu’ara:24]. And so Pharoah mocked and belittled this statement of Musa عليه السلام by saying to those around, “Do you not hear (what he says)?” [Ash-Shu’ara:25]. So Musa عليه السلام reminded them and admonished them further and said, Your Lord and the Lord of your ancient fathers!” [Ash-Shu’ara:26]. Left speechless Pharoah then replied with a false claim, a lie, “Verily, your Messenger who has been sent to you is a madman!” [Ash-Shu’ara:27]. He later continued to threaten Musa عليه السلام  and said, If you choose an ilah (god) other than me, I will certainly put you among the prisoners.” [Ash-Shu’ara:29]. Indicating that he had many other prisoners already to frighten Musa عليه السلام into silence.

Yet Musa عليه السلام  continued thereafter to present the clear proofs until Pharoah said to him,Have you come to drive us out of our land with your magic, O Musa (Moses)? “Then verily, we can produce magic the like thereof; so appoint a meeting between us and you, which neither we, nor you shall fail to keep, in an open wide place where both shall have a just and equal chance (and beholders could witness the competition).”[At-Taha: 57-58]

And when Pharoah came with his magicians Musa عليه السلام admonished them and said, “Woe unto you! Invent not a lie against Allah, lest He should destroy you completely by a torment. And surely, he who invents a lie (against Allah) will fail miserably.”[At-Taha: 61]. Musa (Moses) said to them: “Throw what you are going to throw!” So they threw their ropes and their sticks, and said: “By the might of Fir’aun (Pharaoh), it is we who will certainly win!” Then Musa (Moses) threw his stick, and behold, it swallowed up all the falsehoods which they showed!” [Ash-Shu’ara: 43-45] And so the magicians repented and believed, And the sorcerers fell down prostrate. Saying: “We believe in the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists)” [Ash-Shu’ara: 46-47].

Pharoah continued upon his way and Allah stated, “So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all. And We made them a precedent (as a lesson for those coming after them), and an example to later generations” [Az-Zukhruf: 55-56]. Then Allah commanded Musa عليه السلام, And indeed We inspired Musa (Moses) (saying): “Travel by night with Ibadi (My slaves) and strike a dry path for them in the sea, fearing neither to be overtaken [by Fir’aun (Pharaoh)] nor being afraid (of drowning in the sea).”[At-Taha: 77].

So Musa عليه السلام and his people exited and Pharoah was in pursuit, until they arrived at the Red Sea, Pharoah behind them and the Sea in front of them and “the companions of Musa (Moses) said: “We are sure to be overtaken.”[Ash-Shu’ara: 61]. Musa عليه السلام replied, Nay, verily! With me is my Lord, He will guide me.”[Ash-Shu’ara: 62] That was the eemaan and certainty of Musa عليه السلام. Allah inspired Musa عليه السلام to hit the Sea with his stick and it opened into 12 pathways and so they entered and crossed with the water holding like mountains as they walked upon the dry pathways. Pharoah upon seeing that entered in chase however upon entering the mountains of water collapsed upon him, And We took the Children of Israel across the sea, and Fir’aun (Pharaoh) with his hosts followed them in oppression and enmity, till when drowning overtook him, he said: “I believe that La ilaha illa (Huwa): (none has the right to be worshipped but) He,” in Whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am one of the Muslims (those who submit to Allah’s Will).” So it was said to him, “Now (you believe) while you refused to believe before and you were one of the Mufsidun (evil-doers, corrupts, etc.). So this day We shall deliver your (dead) body (out from the sea) that you may be a sign to those who come after you! And verily, many among mankind are heedless of Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs , revelations, etc.)” [Yunus: 90-92]

And so Allah saved Musa عليه السلامand destroyed Pharoah. It is for this reason when the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم entered Madinah and found the jews to be fasting on the 10th of Muharram he asked regarding that and they replied, “It is the day Allah saved Musa and his people from their enemy [Pharoah] and so Musa fasted this day”, so the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم replied, “I am more deserving of Musa than you” and so he fasted and commanded the people to fast.

Similarly the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم stated if he lived till the upcoming year he would fast the 9th aswell to oppose the others who were fasting only the 10th as he found them. Hence it is sunnah to fast the 9th and 10th of Muharram.

Regarding the reward of fasting the day the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم stated, “It expiates the previous year of sins” [minor sins]. This should not be confused with the day of  ‘Arafah that expiates the previous year and upcoming year.

 Taken from: salaficentre.com

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Related posts About fasting on ‘Ashoora and Month of Muharram:

Virtues of the Month of Muharram‏
The Virtues of Fasting ‘Ashoora (10th of Muharram)
Which is better: Sawm on the 10th with the 9th or the 10th with the 11th of Muharram?

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It is also recommended to fast the day preceding `Ashura’ which is the ninth day of the month Al-Muharram as it is mentioned in the hadith of Ibn `Abbâs رضي الله عنهما who said: “When the Messenger of Allah observed fast on the day of `Ashura, and ordered Muslims to fast on it, they said to him: “O Messenger of Allah! This is a day which both the Jews and the Christians venerate. Upon this, the Messenger of Allah said, “When it is the next year, Allah willing, we would observe fast on the ninth day (of Al-Muharram besides that day)”. But, it was not until the next year that the Messenger of Allah صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم had died”(Reported by Muslim), and in another narration: “If I survive to the coming year, I would surely observe fast on the ninth (day of Al-Muharram)”(Reported by Muslim).

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The Takbeer:

The Takbeer is legislated from the dawn of the day of Arafah and during the Ayyaam At-Tashreeq (i.e. 11th to 13th Dhul Hijjah) to Asr time on the 13th of Dhul Hijjah.  Allaah (The Most High) said: [وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْدُودَاتٍ ]— ”And remember Allah during the appointed Days.” [Soorah Baqarah: Ayah: 203]  The manner in which the Takbeer is performed is: [الله أكبر الله أكبر، لا إله إلا الله، والله أكبر الله أكبر ولله الحمد].  It is prescribed for the men to raise their voices with the Takbeer in the Masaajid, the houses and after the five daily obligatory prayers.  This is done to exalt Allaah and to manifest singling Him out in worship and thanking Him.

 

Bath on the day of Eed

One takes a bath and only men are to wear perfume.  The men should also wear their best clothes but neither going into extravagance nor dragging their garments below their ankles and shaving their beards.

 

Eating From the Eed Sacrifice:

One eats from the Eed sacrifice, because the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) did not use to eat until he returned from the Musalla and ate from the Eed sacrifice. [Zaadul Ma-aad: 1/441]

 

Walking to the Musalla (i.e. place of prayer)
One walks to Musalla if that is easy.  The Sunnah is to pray Eed in the Musalla except if there is an excuse not to do so, such as rain etc.  It is also recommended to stay for the Eed khutbah and to supplicate for the Muslims.  Likewise, one takes a different road whilst returning from the Eed prayer, because this was an action of the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam).

 

Eed Greeting:

It is permissible to greet one another after Eed, because this has been established from some of the Sahaabah.  Shaikh Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) said that there is no particular defined Eed greeting; rather this is left to the people as long as such greeting does not involve sin.  Likewise, he (rahimahullaah) said that there is no harm in shaking hands and embracing one another because these are affairs the people have taken as a custom these days and they are not done as acts of worship or as a means of getting close to Allaah.

And Allaah knows best


This article paraphrased from an article compiled by Ustaadh Abu Usaamah Sameer  Al-Jazaa-iree (may Allaah reward him) http://www.ahlos-sunnah.com/matwyat Also see link: www.sahab.net: see link:  http://www.sahab.net/forums/index.php?showtopic=132870

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A: It is prescribed for the pilgrims to pronounce Talbiyah (devotional expressions chanted at certain times during Hajj and `Umrah) when they enter into Ihram (ritual state for Hajj or `Umrah) until they throw pebbles at Jamrat-ul-`Aqabah (the closest stone pillar to Makkah). This is based on the Hadith reported on the authority of Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him and his father): We left early in the morning with the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) from Mina to `Arafah; some of us were performing Talbiyah and the others performing Takbir. The obligatory Takbir of Hajj starts after offering the Zhuhr (Noon) Prayer on the Day of Nahr (Sacrifice, 10th of Dhul-Hijjah, when pilgrims slaughter their sacrificial animals) until the `Asr (Afternoon) Prayer on the last of the Days of Tashriq (11th, 12th, and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah). As for non-pilgrims, they should start Takbir starting from after the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer on the Day of `Arafah (9th of Dhul-Hijjah) until the end of the Days of Tashriq. The evidence of the prescription of Takbir is Allah’s Saying: And remember Allâh during the appointed Days. And: and that you must magnify Allâh [i.e. to say Takbîr (Allâhu Akbar; Allâh is the Most Great)] for having guided you This is what the Sahabah (Companions of the Prophet) used to do.

Grand Mufti Of Saudi Arabia His Eminence Shaykh `Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah Al Al-Shaykh

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Ibn Rajab (rahimahullaah) said in Lataa-if (p.385): 

“Whoever missed out on the standing at ‘Arafah; then let him stand for Allaah in regards to His rights in that which he is aware of.



Whoever was incapable from residing the night at Muzdalifah; then let his determination reside the nights upon obedience to Allaah – and indeed he will come close to Him and draw near to Him.


Whoever it was not possible for to stand in the vicinity of (Masjid) Al-Khaif (at Mina); then let him stand for Allaah with the right of hope and fear.


Whoever was unable to slaughter his sacrificial offering at Mina; then let him slaughter his desire right here – and indeed he would have attained the endurance of adversity.


Whoever was unable to reach the House (the Ka’bah) because he was far from it; then let him aspire to The Lord of the House, for indeed He is closer to the one who supplicates to Him and has hope in Him – than his jugular vein [4].”


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[4]
As He, The Most High states:
((And indeed We have created man, and We know what his soul whispers to him, and We are closer to him than his jugular vein)) (Qaaf: 16).

Excerpt from the article. Translated by Sbu Haatim M. Farooq.

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