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Article: Issues Related to the Legislative Ruling of Zakaat al-Fitr by Shaykh Badr Ibn Muhammad al-Badr al-‘Anazy

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This timely article written by Shaykh Badr Ibn Muhammad al-Badr (حفظه الله) is a compilation of important questions related to the legislative rulings of Zakaat al-Fitr which he presented to ash-Shaykh al-‘Allaamah Saalih Ibn Muhammad al-Luhaydaan (حفظه الله). This article was translated by our noble brother Abu Afnaan Muhammad Abdullah (حفظه الله).

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The issues addressed are:

1. Why is Zakaat al-Fitr referred to with this name?

2. What is the amount of a Sa’a (measurement)?

3. What are the foodstuffs which are given as Zakaat?

4. Is it permissible to give the Zakaat al-Fitr as money?

5. Who is Zakaat al-Fitr given to?

6. Can the Zakaat al-Fitr be given to non-Muslims?

7. Is Zakaat al-Fitr to be paid on behalf of people who are mentally ill?

8. Is Zakaat al-Fitr given on behalf of an old person who is senile?”

9. Is it permissible to send the Zakaat al-Fitr to another country?”

10. Is it permissible for a person to give the Zakaat on behalf of his siblings who are orphans?”

11. Is Zakaat al-Fitr given on behalf of a maid?”

12. Is Zakaat al-Fitr given on behalf of a fetus?”

13. When does giving Zakaat al-Fitr become obligatory?

14. When is Zakaat al-Fitr given?

15. Is it permissible to make up Zakaat al-Fitr?

16. Is it permissible to entrust someone to pay the Zakaat al-Fitr?”

17. For an individual who works in a foreign country, does he give the Zakaat al-Fitr in his country or the other (in which he works)? Also, is it permissible to give the Zakaat on behalf of his children in the country which he works?

CONTINUE READING: http://www.mpubs.org/ramadhaan/578-article-issues-related-to-the-legislative-ruling-of-zakaat-al-fitr-shaykh-badr-ibn-muhammad-al-badr

 

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The first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah are greatest days in Allah’s sight. Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) swore by them in His Book, and swearing by something indicates its merits , great virtue and benefit.

Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) says in Surat al-Fajr, Verse 1-2

وَالْفَجْرِ وَلَيَالٍ عَشْر

“By the dawn”   “And [by] ten nights”

Ibn ‘abbas, Ibn Zabayr, Mujahid and others among the Salaf and the latter generations said that “the ten night’s refers to the (first) ten days of Dhul-Hijjah.” Ibn Kateer (Rahimahullaah) says: “This is the correct (opinion).” [Tafser Ibn Katheer]

The Prophet (Salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:

‘There are no days during which righteous deeds are more beloved to Allaah than these 10 days (i.e. the first days of Dhul-Hijjah).’ The Companions (Radia Allaahu ‘anhuma) said: “O Messenger of Allaah not even Jihaad in the cause of Allaah?’

He (Salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) replied: ‘Not even Jihaad in the cause of Allaah. Except the one who went to fight taking himself and his wealth but did not return with either of them.’” Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (Radia Allaahu ‘anhuma) [Al-Bukhaari & At-Tirmidhi]

Among the good deeds that one can perform during these days are the remembrance of Allah by Takbeer and Tahleel, according to the following evidences.

1- Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) says in Surat al-Hajj, Verse 28:

لِيَشْهَدُوا مَنَافِعَ لَهُمْ وَيَذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْلُومَاتٍ عَلَى مَا رَزَقَهُم مِّن بَهِيمَةِ الْأَنْعَامِ

“That they may witness benefits for themselves and mention the name of Allah on known (specific) days over what He has provided for them of [sacrificial] animals.”

Ibn ‘Abbas (Radia Allaahu ‘anhu) said that the specific days are the ten days of Dhul-Hijjah. Al-Bukhaari narrated this with a disconnected chain  a manner denoting his approval of it. [Tafseer Ibn Katheer]

2- Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) also says in Surat al-Baqarah, Verse 203:

وَاذْكُرُواْ اللّهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْدُودَاتٍ

And remember Allah during [specific] numbered days.

These days are the days of Tashriq (i.e. 11th, 12th and 13th days of the month) of Dhul-Hijjah , spend them by saying the Takbeer.

3- The Prophet (Salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:

“The Days of Tashriq are days of eating, drinking and remembrance of Allah, the Great and Glorious.” [Reported by Muslim]

The Description of Takbeer

1- To say:

ALLAHu Akbar… ALLAHu Akbar… Laa ilaha illa-ALLAH…. ALLAHu akbar ALLAHu Akbar…. wa lillahil-hamd

2- To say:

ALLAHu Akbar….ALLAHu Akbar….ALLAHu Akbar….Laa ilaha illa-ALLAH….ALLAHu akbar …..ALLAHu Akbar….wa lillahil-hamd

3-To say:

ALLAHu Akbar….ALLAHu Akbar…. ALLAHu Akbar…. Laa ilaha illa-ALLAH….ALLAHu akbar….ALLAHu akbar ….ALLAHu Akbar …wa lillahil-hamd

Its Times

1- Unrestricted Takbeer

It is Sunnah to say it at any time in the morning and/or evening, before offering the Salat and/or after the Salat, in every time.

It is Sunnah to say it during the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah and the days of Tashriq, starting from the commencement of the month of Dhul-Hijjah (i.e. from the sunset of the last day of the month of Duh-Hijjah) till the last days of Tashriq (i.e from sunset of the last days of Tashriq (i.e the Asr prayer of the 13th of Dhul-Hijjah)

Shaikh Bin ‘Uthaimeen (Rahimahullaah) said: “It ends with the sunset of the last day of Tashriq.” [Ash-Sharh al-Mumti’e]

2-Restricted Takbeer

It is said after finishing the obligatory prayers.  It starts from the Fajr of the day of ‘Arafah (i.e. 9th of Dhul-Hijjah) till the Asr prayer of the 13th of Dhul-Hijjah (i.e. last day of Tashriq). It is also said in addition to the unrestricted Takbeer, that is when one finished the obligatory prayer and says “Astaghfirullaah” three times and says “Allahumma anta as Salaam wa minkas-salaam, Tabaarakta yaa dhal-Jalaali wal-Ikraam,” he will start saying the Takbeer.

The above explanation is for a non pilgrim. As for a pilgrim:

It is better for him to be occupied with Talbiyah when he is in state of Ihram till he stoned the Jamaratul-Aqabah on the Day of Sacrifice (10th of Dhul-Hijjah) then afterwards, he starts the Takbeer. He starts saying the Takbeer with throwing the first pebble at Jamratul-Aqabah. [Fatawa Shaikh Bin Baaz]

Sheikh Bin Uthaimeen (Rahimahullaah) said: “The pilgrim starts the Takbeer for Dhuhur prayer on the day of sacrifice (10th of Dhul-Hijjah.” [Sharh al-Mumti’e]

Accordingly, the unrestricted Takbeer and the restricted Takbeer join together in five days, which are the days of ‘Arafah, the day of Nahr (10th of Dhul-Hijjah) and the days of Tashriq.

The 8th Day of Dhul-Hijjah and before that, starting from the beginning of the month, the Takbeer is unrestricted.

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Meaning

Zakah al-Fitr is often referred to as Sadaqah al-Fitr. The word Fitr means the same as Iftar, breaking a fast and it comes from the same root word as Futur which means breakfast. Thus, Islamically, Zakah al-Fitr is the name given to charity which is distributed at the end of the fast of Ramadan.

Significance

The significant role played by Zakah in the circulation of wealth within the Islamic society is also played by the Sadaqah al-Fitr. However, in the case of Sadaqah al-Fitr, each individual is required to calculate how much charity is due from himself and his dependents and go into the community in order to find those who deserve such charity. Thus, Sadaqah al-Fitr plays a very important role in the development of the bonds of community. The rich are obliged to come in direct contact with the poor, and the poor are put in contact with the extremely poor. This contact between the various levels of society helps to build real bonds of brotherhood and love within the Islamic community and trains those who have, to be generous to those who do not have.

Purpose

The main purpose of Zakah al-Fitr is to provide those who fasted with the means of making up for their errors during the month of fasting. Zakah al-Fitr also provides the poor with a mean with which they can celebrate the festival of breaking the fast (Eid al-Fitr) along with the rest of the Muslims. Ibn Abbas reported, “The Prophet (peace be upon him) made Zakah al-Fitr compulsory so that those who fasted may be purified of their idle deeds and shameful talk (committed during Ramadan) and so that the poor may be fed. Whoever gives it before Salah will have it accepted as Zakah, while he who gives it after the Salah has given Sadaqah.” [Reported by Abu Dawud and Shaikh Naser Al-Albani said it is Hasan (good)]

«فرض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم زكاة الفطر طهرة للصائم من اللغو والرفث وطعمة للمساكين من أداها قبل الصلاة فهي زكاة مقبولة ومن أداها بعد الصلاة فهي صدقة من الصدقات» رواه أبو داود وحسنه الألباني

Hence, the goal of Sadaqah al-Fitr is the spiritual development of the Believers. By making them give up some of their wealth, the believers are taught the higher moral characteristics of generosity, compassion (sympathy for the unfortunate), gratitude to God and the righteousness. But, since Islam does not neglect man’s material need, part of the goal of Zakah al-Fitr is the economic well-being of the poorer members of society. ” ..[Taken from:Wathaker Production]

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Ruling on Zakat-ul-Fitr

The fifth question of Fatwa no. 5733

Q 5: Is it an authentic Hadith that says: “The Sawm (Fasting) of Ramadan is not raised (to Allah) until Zakat-ul-Fitr (obligatory charity paid before the Festival of Breaking the Fast) is paid”? Is Zakat-ul-Fitr obligatory on a fasting Muslim who is needy and does not have the Nisab (the minimum amount on which Zakah is due) based on the authenticity of the previous Hadith or other Islamic textual evidence authentically reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him)?

A: Zakat-ul-Fitr is obligatory on every Muslim who should be self-supporting if he has one Sa‘ (1 Sa‘ = 2.172 kg) or more in excess of his and his family’s need on the day and night of ‘Eid-ul-Fitr (the Festival of Breaking the Fast). This is based on the Hadith authentically reported on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with them both) who said: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) enjoined the payment of one Sa‘ of dates or one Sa‘ of barley as Zakat-ul-Fitr on every Muslim slave or free, male or female, young or old, and he ordered that it be paid before the people go out to offer ‘Eid Prayer.

(Part No. 9Page No. 365)

(Related by both Al-Bukhari and Muslim and the wording is that of Al-Bukhari)

Moreover, Abu Sa‘id Al-Khudry (may Allah be pleased with him) is reported to have said: We used to pay Zakat-ul-Fitr as one Sa‘ of food, or one Sa‘ of dried dates, or one Sa‘ of barley, or one Sa‘ of raisins, or one Sa‘ of curd during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). (Related by both Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

It will also suffice to discharge the obligation by giving a Sa‘ of the local staple food such as rice and the like. Sa‘ here means the Sa‘ of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), which is four handfuls scooped up with the two hands of an average built man. Accordingly, a person who does not pay Zakat-ul-Fitr is sinful and has to make up for it. With regard to the Hadith you have mentioned, we know nothing to the effect of its authenticity.

We ask Allah to guide you and to make our words and deeds and yours righteous.

May Allah grant us success! May blessings and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and Companions!

Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’

Member Member Deputy Chairman Chairman
`Abdullah ibn Qa`ud `Abdullah ibn Ghudayyan `Abdul-Razzaq `Afify `Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz
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The time that Zakat-ul-Fitr (obligatory charity paid before the Festival of Breaking the Fast) is due

First question from Fatwa No. ( 2896 )

Q 1: Does the time that Zakatul-Fitr is due begin after offering the `Eid Salah (Prayer) and end at the end of that day?

A: The time that Zakatul-Fitr is due does not begin after the `Eid Salah. It begins after sunset of the last day of Ramadan, marking the first night of Shawwal, and ends with the `Eid Salah. This is based on the fact that the Prophet (peace be upon him) ordered it to be paid before the `Eid Salah. To the same effect, Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) reported the Prophet (peace be upon him) to have said: If anyone pays it before the Salah (of `Eid), it will be accepted as Zakah. If anyone pays it after the Salah, that will be a Sadaqah (charity) like other Sadaqahs. However, it may be paid two or three days before that time based on the Hadith in which Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with both of them) is reported to have said: The Prophet (peace be upon him) imposed Sadaqatul-Fitr in Ramadan. He said at the end of the Hadith, “They used to pay it a day or two in advance.” Thus, whoever delays paying it is sinful and has to repent to Allah and pay it to the poor.

(Part No. 9Page No. 374)

May Allah grant us success! May blessings and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and Companions!

Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta

Member Member Deputy Chairman Chairman
`Abdullah ibn Qa`ud `Abdullah ibn Ghudayyan `Abdul-Razzaq `Afify `Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz

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