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Taken from the book ‘al-Fiqhul-Muyas-sar’

Translation/amendments/extra points of benefit prepared by Yusuf McNulty
The definition of al-Kusoof, and the wisdom behind it:
Al-Kusoof (eclipse) is when the light of either the sun or the moon becomes covered, due to something out of the ordinary happening. 


Kusoof (solar eclipse – the sun becoming covered during the day).


Khusoof (lunar eclipse – the moon becoming covered during the night) both carry the same meaning in Arabic.

Allaah makes this happen in order to frighten His servants, so that they return to Him in repentance, just as the Prophet – sallallaahu alayhi wasallam, said: ((Indeed, both the sun and the moon are two signs from the signs of Allaah, He does not make them eclipse due to the death or life of anyone, but rather in order to terrify His servants.)) [1]

The ruling of Salaatul-Kusoof and the evidence for it:
Salaatul-Kusoof is waajib (obligatory), as stated by Aboo Awaanah in his Saheeh, and was also narrated from Aboo Haneefah. Imaam Maalik held it to be the same as Jumuah (in ruling). Ibnul-Qayyim strengthened the opinion regarding its obligation, and Sh Muhammad Ibn Saalih al-Uthaymeen agreed with Ibnul-Qayyim’s view. This is because the Prophet – sallallaahu alayhi wasallam, commanded with its performance, and he would set out for it immediately, and he informed that it occurs to frighten the servants (of Allaah). [2]
…It’s time:
The time of the Salaah begins with the onset of the eclipse, and lasts until the eclipse ends due to the Prophet’s statement: ((If you see anything of it (the eclipse), then pray up until it clears.)) [3]
The description of the Salaah and what should be recited 

within it:
🔸It is two rakahs,
🔸in the first rakah you should recite Soorah al-Faatihah loudly – regardless of whether it is night or day – and also another soorah, which should be long.
🔸 Then after that you make rukoo, and this should be prolonged.
 🔸Thereafter you rise up from the rukoo, say ‘samiallaahu liman hamidah’ and ‘rabbanaa wa lakal-hamd’, but there is no sujood just yet;
🔸 rather Soorah al-Faatihah is recited again along with another long soorah, however it should be a little bit shorter than the first (soorah recited). 
🔸Then you make rukoo again, and rise up from it as normal,
🔸 then sujood is performed, twice as normal, but they should be made long.
🔸 After standing up, you should pray the second rakah just as the first, except make it a little bit shorter, 
🔸and you end the Salaah with tashah-hud and tasleem as normal.
🍃Source: salafitalk.com

🖇Link: http://salafitalk.com/threads/1973-Salaatul-Kusoof-The-Eclipse-Prayer

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What follows is a summary of the story concerning the events that occurred at the time of Musa عليه السلام; the victory Allah provided to His messenger and the destruction of the Pharoah. It is summarised from a khutba delivered by Shaikh Mohammad bin Salih al-Uthaymeen.

“In this month of Muharram was the salvation of Musa عليه السلام and his people from Pharoah and his army. Allah سبحانه و تعالى had sent him with clear evidences and proofs upon his prophethood, yet the Pharoah was arrogant and haughty and claimed, “I am your lord, most high” [An-Naazi’aat:24]. Musa عليه السلام came to him with great signs and called him to tawhid, to the tawhid of the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth yet Pharoah said in arrogance, “And what is the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists)?”[Ash-Shu’ara:23]. 

Musa عليه السلام responded, Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, if you seek to be convinced with certainty.”[Ash-Shu’ara:24]. And so Pharoah mocked and belittled this statement of Musa عليه السلام by saying to those around, “Do you not hear (what he says)?” [Ash-Shu’ara:25]. So Musa عليه السلام reminded them and admonished them further and said, Your Lord and the Lord of your ancient fathers!” [Ash-Shu’ara:26]. Left speechless Pharoah then replied with a false claim, a lie, “Verily, your Messenger who has been sent to you is a madman!” [Ash-Shu’ara:27]. He later continued to threaten Musa عليه السلام  and said, If you choose an ilah (god) other than me, I will certainly put you among the prisoners.” [Ash-Shu’ara:29]. Indicating that he had many other prisoners already to frighten Musa عليه السلام into silence.

Yet Musa عليه السلام  continued thereafter to present the clear proofs until Pharoah said to him,Have you come to drive us out of our land with your magic, O Musa (Moses)? “Then verily, we can produce magic the like thereof; so appoint a meeting between us and you, which neither we, nor you shall fail to keep, in an open wide place where both shall have a just and equal chance (and beholders could witness the competition).”[At-Taha: 57-58]

And when Pharoah came with his magicians Musa عليه السلام admonished them and said, “Woe unto you! Invent not a lie against Allah, lest He should destroy you completely by a torment. And surely, he who invents a lie (against Allah) will fail miserably.”[At-Taha: 61]. Musa (Moses) said to them: “Throw what you are going to throw!” So they threw their ropes and their sticks, and said: “By the might of Fir’aun (Pharaoh), it is we who will certainly win!” Then Musa (Moses) threw his stick, and behold, it swallowed up all the falsehoods which they showed!” [Ash-Shu’ara: 43-45] And so the magicians repented and believed, And the sorcerers fell down prostrate. Saying: “We believe in the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists)” [Ash-Shu’ara: 46-47].

Pharoah continued upon his way and Allah stated, “So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all. And We made them a precedent (as a lesson for those coming after them), and an example to later generations” [Az-Zukhruf: 55-56]. Then Allah commanded Musa عليه السلام, And indeed We inspired Musa (Moses) (saying): “Travel by night with Ibadi (My slaves) and strike a dry path for them in the sea, fearing neither to be overtaken [by Fir’aun (Pharaoh)] nor being afraid (of drowning in the sea).”[At-Taha: 77].

So Musa عليه السلام and his people exited and Pharoah was in pursuit, until they arrived at the Red Sea, Pharoah behind them and the Sea in front of them and “the companions of Musa (Moses) said: “We are sure to be overtaken.”[Ash-Shu’ara: 61]. Musa عليه السلام replied, Nay, verily! With me is my Lord, He will guide me.”[Ash-Shu’ara: 62] That was the eemaan and certainty of Musa عليه السلام. Allah inspired Musa عليه السلام to hit the Sea with his stick and it opened into 12 pathways and so they entered and crossed with the water holding like mountains as they walked upon the dry pathways. Pharoah upon seeing that entered in chase however upon entering the mountains of water collapsed upon him, And We took the Children of Israel across the sea, and Fir’aun (Pharaoh) with his hosts followed them in oppression and enmity, till when drowning overtook him, he said: “I believe that La ilaha illa (Huwa): (none has the right to be worshipped but) He,” in Whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am one of the Muslims (those who submit to Allah’s Will).” So it was said to him, “Now (you believe) while you refused to believe before and you were one of the Mufsidun (evil-doers, corrupts, etc.). So this day We shall deliver your (dead) body (out from the sea) that you may be a sign to those who come after you! And verily, many among mankind are heedless of Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs , revelations, etc.)” [Yunus: 90-92]

And so Allah saved Musa عليه السلامand destroyed Pharoah. It is for this reason when the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم entered Madinah and found the jews to be fasting on the 10th of Muharram he asked regarding that and they replied, “It is the day Allah saved Musa and his people from their enemy [Pharoah] and so Musa fasted this day”, so the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم replied, “I am more deserving of Musa than you” and so he fasted and commanded the people to fast.

Similarly the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم stated if he lived till the upcoming year he would fast the 9th aswell to oppose the others who were fasting only the 10th as he found them. Hence it is sunnah to fast the 9th and 10th of Muharram.

Regarding the reward of fasting the day the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم stated, “It expiates the previous year of sins” [minor sins]. This should not be confused with the day of  ‘Arafah that expiates the previous year and upcoming year.

 Taken from: salaficentre.com

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Related posts About fasting on ‘Ashoora and Month of Muharram:

Virtues of the Month of Muharram‏
The Virtues of Fasting ‘Ashoora (10th of Muharram)
Which is better: Sawm on the 10th with the 9th or the 10th with the 11th of Muharram?

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It is also recommended to fast the day preceding `Ashura’ which is the ninth day of the month Al-Muharram as it is mentioned in the hadith of Ibn `Abbâs رضي الله عنهما who said: “When the Messenger of Allah observed fast on the day of `Ashura, and ordered Muslims to fast on it, they said to him: “O Messenger of Allah! This is a day which both the Jews and the Christians venerate. Upon this, the Messenger of Allah said, “When it is the next year, Allah willing, we would observe fast on the ninth day (of Al-Muharram besides that day)”. But, it was not until the next year that the Messenger of Allah صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم had died”(Reported by Muslim), and in another narration: “If I survive to the coming year, I would surely observe fast on the ninth (day of Al-Muharram)”(Reported by Muslim).

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Watch  Hajj 1437H Live  streaming of Makkah and Madinah in this Hajj Session

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Makkah [Live streaming]

 

http://bestislamicimages.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/sunrise-masjid-al-haram.jpg?w=503&h=358

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and

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Madinah [Live streaming]

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Q: O respected Sheikh! Would you please tell me the meaning of Allah’s saying: But whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him and whosoever stays on, there is no sin on him?

A: This Glorious Ayah (Qur’anic verse) relates to the Days of Tashriq (11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah), Al-Nafr Al-Awwal (leaving Mina after throwing the stones in the 12th of Dhul-Hijjah), and Al-Nafr Al-Thani (leaving Mina after stoning on the 13th of Dhul-Hijjah). Allah (Glorified be He) says: And remember Allâh during the appointed Days. i.e. the Days of Tashriq which does not include the Day of `Eid-ul-Adha (the Festival of the Sacrifice). And remember Allâh during the appointed Days. The Day of `Eid-ul-Adha is the tenth day of Dhul-Hijjah. Muslims are commanded to pronounce Dhikr (Remembrance of Allah) during the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah and the appointed Days of Tashriq. Dhikr is thus ordained during all the thirteen days; starting from the 1st day of Dhul-Hijjah to the 13th day. They are all days of Dhikr, Takbir (saying: “Allahu Akbar [Allah is the Greatest]”), and Tahlil (saying: “La ilaha illa Allah [There is no god except Allah]”). It is ordained that Muslims pronounce Takbir and Tahlil during these thirteen days at all times and wherever they may be. Allah (Exalted be He) says: And remember Allâh during the appointed Days. But whosoever hastens to leave in two days i.e. there is no sin on whosoever leaves on the 12th of Dhul-Hijjah, …and whosoever stays on i.e. for the 13th of Dhul-Hijjah …there is no sin on him, if his aim is to do good and obey Allâh (fear Him), and know that you will surely be gathered unto Him. Allah (Glorified be He) reminds pilgrims that as they gather in `Arafat, Muzdalifah, and Mina; He (Exalted be He) will assemble them all in the Day of Resurrection in a large gathering as He (Exalted be He) says: (And remember) the Day when He will gather you (all) on the Day of Gathering, — that will be the Day of mutual loss and gain (i.e. loss for the disbelievers as they will enter the Hell-fire and gain for the believers as they will enter Paradise). All people will be gathered on the Day of Resurrection and reckoned for their deeds.

If their deeds are good, they will be rewarded and vice versa. The large gathering at Mina, `Arafat, and Muzdalifah reminds reflective people of the Day of Resurrection so that they may prepare for this great Day. However, some pilgrims may be in need to hasten and leave Mina on the 12th of Dhul-Hijjah and some may not. Whoever hastens and leaves Mina on the 12th of Dhul-Hijjah after throwing the stones after Zawal (midday), there is no blame on them. Whoever leaves Mina on the 13th of Dhul-Hijjah after throwing the stones after Zawal (midday), there is no blame on them and it is best as this was done by the Prophet (peace be upon him). Thus it is optional either to leave Mina on the 12th or the 13th of Dhul-Hijjah. Pilgrims then proceed to Makkah where they are to perform Tawaf-ul-Wada` (circumambulation of the Ka`bah on leaving Makkah) if they are leaving or they may stay in Makkah for some days.

A pilgrim must perform Tawaf-ul-Wada` whenever they intend to depart. It should be clear that the Day of `Eid-ul-Adha is not one of the Days of Tashriq as some people wrongly think; they leave Mina on the 11th of Dhul-Hijjah and say that this is the second Day of Tashriq. This is a big mistake for the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Days of Mina are three. Whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on them and whosoever stays on, there is no sin on them. i.e. the 11th, the 12th, and the 13th Days of Dhul-Hijjah.

Fatwas of Ibn Baz

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Source: http://www.alifta.net/Fatawa/FatawaDetails.aspx?View=Page&PageID=4773&PageNo=1&BookID=14

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Increase in making Dua, best of dua is the dua of ‘Arafah:

 

خَيرُ الدُّعَاءِ : دُعَاءُ يَومِ عَرَفَةَ

“The best du’aa is the du’aa on the Day of ‘Arafah”
[At-Tirmidhee (#3585): Declared Hasan by Shaykh al-Albaanee. See As-Saheehah (#1503)]

Abu Musa al-Ashari (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said:

“The Du’aa is not rejected during these days of Dhul-Hijjah.” (Lataaif p. 377)

As for the Best Dua to say on the Day of Arafah:

The Messenger of Allaah (Sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:

« خَيرُ الدُّعَاءِ : دُعَاءُ يَومِ عَرَفَةَ ، وَ خَيرُ مَا قُلْتُ أَنَا وَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِنْ قَبْلِي : لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ ، وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ ، لَهُ المُلكُ ، وَ لَهُ الحَمدُ ، وَ هُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيءٍ قَدِيرٌ »

“The best du’aa is the du’aa on the Day of ‘Arafah, and the best thing that I and the Prophets before me said is: ‘Laa ilaaha illallaah, wahdahu laa shareeka lah, lahul-Mulku wa lahul-hamd, wa huwa ‘alaa kulli shayin qadeer’.”

(There is nothing that deserves to be worshiped in truth except Allaah, He is Alone and has no partner, to Him belongs the dominion and to Him belongs all praise, and He is All-Powerful over all things)
[At-Tirmidhee (#3585): Declared Hasan by Shaykh al-Albaanee. See As-Saheehah (#1503)

As for the Day of Arafaah:

The Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “There is no day on which Allaah frees more people from the Fire than the Day of ‘Arafaah. He comes close and expresses His pride to the angels, saying, ‘What do these people want?’”

As for fasting on the day of Arafaah for those not performing Hajj:

The Messenger of Allaah (Sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) was asked about fasting on the Day of ‘Arafaah. He said, “It expiates for the sins of the previous year and of the coming year.” Narrated by Muslim.

As for the du’aa of the fasting person:

Our Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “There are three prayers that are not rejected: the prayer of a father for his child, the prayer of the fasting person and the prayer of the traveller.”

 

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